Jazz North Originals Survey

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Following a sector consultation with 25 artists and artistic directors, a pilot project with Manchester-based composer and improviser Rodrigo Constanzo and research into promoters’ operational capacity, Art of Festivals is conducting a survey on behalf of Jazz North to understand better how commissioning new music can be better supported.

This next stage of development aims to establish a consolidated approach to commissioning new work that can assist the jazz sector in building relevant partnerships and encouraging new thought processes.

There are 3 different short surveys for artists, promoters and arts managers / creative producers with commissioning experience. For any questions about the project or if you want to discuss your experience in more depth, email me or indicate your interest at the end of the survey.

 

Artists

Have you been commissioned by a festival or venue to create a new piece of music? Please complete the Artist survey.

Promoters & Curators

Do you commission new works or present projects with multiple components, such as residencies, participation or education? Please complete the Promoter survey.

Arts Managers & Creative producers

Do you have experience working on commissions or projects with multiple components, such as residencies, participation or education? Please complete the Producer survey.

 

jazz-north-logo

The Jazz Papers

The Long Read

I’ve just started to develop a new project for Jazz North tentatively called northern originals Phase 3, a follow-up to the consultation and pilot project I ran from 2013 to 2015, and right now I’m trawling the Internet archives to unearth policy and research documents about strategic planning and audience development for jazz and contemporary music. As this is something that could be useful to anyone interested in the future of jazz in the UK, I’ve listed what I’ve found so far below in chronological order from older to newer, and will add more as they emerge.

 

Jazz – the Case for a Better Investment

(Jazz Services, 1993)
pdf online

A Policy for the Support of Jazz in England

(Arts Council England, 1996)
pdf online

How to Develop Audiences for Jazz

(Morris Hargreaves McIntyre, 2001)
pdf online
market research and industry conference

Contemporary Music Enthusiasts: How can we persuade people to try something different?

(Heather Maitland, Journal of Arts Marketing, 2002)
pdf online

Guide to Getting Bigger Jazz Audiences

(Heather Maitland, Jazz Services / EMJAZZ, 2011?)
pdf online

Rhythm Changes: Historical Overviews of Five Partner Countries

(Bruckner-Haring, C. & Whyton, T. (eds.), Graz, 2013)
pdf online

New Music : New Audiences final evaluation report

(New:Aud European project, 2014)
pdf online

Audience Development: The Road to Success

The Long Read

I was recently invited by Jazz North to talk to the new crop of artists selected for Northern Line – a subsidised touring scheme – about growing their audience through social media. As I’ve also done similar workshops for jazz promoters, I know it’s a great way to join the dots and tackle audience development on all fronts. However, artists and small independent promoters don’t have access to much data – so tools like the Audience Agency’s Audience Spectrum are not very helpful for their needs. For that type of public, I usually explain audience development in terms of distance, with existing audiences as the core circle, and other audience groups to be reached as being gradually further away: the more in common they have with the music, band, venue, club…, the closer they are, and therefore the easier and less costly they are to reach. It’s not a very sophisticated approach, and I felt that it was time to revise it a notch. Luckily, I came across the New York-based Wallace Foundation via a mention on France Musique of their current 6-year $40m investment in audience development, supporting and analysing the activities of 26 performing arts organisations. This funding programme is based on previous initiatives that are well documented on their website, so I started digging into their resources.

 

The Behavioural Model: The New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts

One of their landmark research pieces is the The New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts, commissioned from research agency RAND Corporation (which stands for R&D, not the Fountainhead author) in 2001. Based on 13 site visits and over 100 in depth-interviews with funded institutions, the report proposes a behavioural model to help arts organisations identify the main decision-making factors that lead to participation in the arts.

The model is based on four decision-making stages, each affected by specific sets of factors, that link background factors to attitudes, attitudes to intentions, intentions to actual behaviour, and past behaviour to future behaviour (p. 23):  

  • The Background Stage consists of the individual’s general attitudes toward the arts, a general consideration of whether to consider the arts as a potential leisure activity;
    • Influencing factors: the individual’s background characteristics: socio-demographics, personality traits, prior arts experience, and socio-cultural factors.
  • The Perceptual Stage (stage 1) is the individual’s formation of an inclination toward the arts based on an assessment of the benefits and costs of participation and where to obtain those benefits;
    • Influencing factors: perceptual factors, such as personal beliefs about the benefits and costs of arts participation and perceptions of how reference groups view the arts
  • The Practical Stage (stage 2) is their an evaluation of specific opportunities to participate;
    • Influencing factors: practical factors, such as available information on the arts, the costs involved in participation, and convenience
  • and the Experience Stage (stage 3) is the actual arts participation experience followed by a reassessment of the benefits and costs of the arts and assessment of their inclination to participate.
    • Influencing factors: the individual’s reaction to the actual experience

 

Type of Audience Development Activity

The report starts by defining three broad ways to increase participation in the arts – three types of activities that arts organisations can pursue, each with their own engagement strategy, and each responding to different organisational mission and values.

When setting out to build participation in the arts and develop audiences (both terms are used interchangeably in the report), organisations can either aim to:

  • broaden audiences (increase their size);
  • deepen them (enrich the experience of current participants);
  • diversify them (bring new groups into the fold).

Whilst all three types of direction could in theory be led concurrently, in practice only one or two at a time are likely to be both aligned with the organisation’s mission and achievable within its resources.

Audience Targeting

To build a targeted strategy, the next steps is to gather the right information about audiences, in line with the behavioural model:

  1. Background: Determine the target population’s inclinations toward the arts (eg. distinguishing between participants and non-participants, but also between non-participants who are inclined to participate and those who are not).
  2. Perceptual: Gather information about their motivations (e.g., whether they are looking for entertainment or enrichment, and whether they are more likely to prefer self-focused or social activities).
  3. Practical: Understand specific information about the lifestyles, specific programme interests and leisure activities of potential participants and how these groups stay informed about their leisure activities. This will help to adapt the programming, scheduling, pricing, and marketing efforts to the specific needs of the potential audiences.

The report recommends adopting an integrated approach to create an effective audience development strategy (p. 42):

  • Begin by considering how the organization’s participation-building activities align with its core values and purpose by choosing participation goals that support its purpose.
  • Identify clear target populations and base its tactics on good information about those groups.
  • Understand what internal and external resources can be committed to building participation.
  • Establish a process for feedback and self-evaluation (using both quantitative and qualitative methods).

 

15 Year Later: The Road To Success

Between 2006 and 2012, Wallace funded 54 organizations to develop and test approaches for expanding audiences informed by RAND’s guidance, and commissioned market researcher Bob Harlow to write case study evaluations for 10 of these organisations, presented in The Road to Results: Effective Practices for Building Arts Audiences (2014).

Across 10 very different institutions – a young people’s choir, theatre, ballet and opera companies, museums, galleries and art workshop providers – Harlow identified 9 practices that contributed to the success of their participation-building strategy:

  1. Recognizing When Change Is Needed
  2. Identifying the Target Audience that Fits
  3. Determining What Kinds of Barriers Need to Be Removed
  4. Taking Out the Guesswork: Audience Research to Clarify the Approach
  5. Thinking Through the Relationship
  6. Providing Multiple Ways In
  7. Aligning the Organization Around the Strategy
  8. Building in Learning
  9. Preparing for Success

Road-To-Results-Infographic-page-001

 

Each practice is illustrated in detail with examples from the case studies, and further reports into specific points provide even more learning opportunities to understand and adapt these principles – for example, Taking Out the Guesswork: A Guide to Using Research to Build Arts Audiences, published a year later, includes very practical tips on facilitating focus groups, including budget and timeline, guidelines on designing, conducting and analysing surveys and advice on working with market researchers.  

The key factor for success throughout these examples is the desire to learn from audiences and adapt accordingly, which implies a complex change management process that can transform an organisation from within. It doesn’t mean changing the programming offer or artistic vision, on the contrary: as these case studies evidence, the road to success starts by being confident that what you do is valuable and being proud to offer it to your audiences, but humble enough to ask them what they really think. Perceptual and practical barriers can be difficult to see or take seriously for staff who are immersed in the daily life of their organisation, and removing them requires more often than not a new collaborative effort between departments or levels, a change in organisational behaviour, a renewed sense of purpose. Across all 54 organisations that received Wallace’s multi-year funding to test and apply the RAND behavioural participation-building model, and specifically out of the 46 with reliable data, results were “surprisingly positive”:

over three years, the 11 organizations seeking to boost their overall audiences saw median gains of 27 percent. Results for the 35 organizations targeting specific audience segments were even higher—60 percent—though it’s important to note that in some cases organizations were starting from a small base.

 

The following table summarises the achievements of 10 case studies highlighted in Road to Success.

Case Studies Results-page-001

Planning Steps for Participation-Building

Without additional funding or detailed data, what can be taken from these studies to help small organisations and individual artists grow their audience? My next audience development workshop might look a bit more like this:

 

  1. Determine the direction of growth (broaden, deepen and/or diversify). Who do you wish to see at your next gig: more of the same people, the same people more often or completely different people?
  2. Understand the target audience, and specifically their levers of behaviour change: what makes them tick and what puts them off. What would they do more if they could? What are the barriers that hold them back? Observe, listen, analyse, be ready to be challenged and to change your ways.
  3. Start by applying small-step tactics that don’t cause a strain on resources, and monitor results carefully. This is a pilot phase to try new things out, which can include internal collaboration, new partnerships, modifying existing practices or implementing new initiatives. Lack of result doesn’t mean that the whole idea is wrong: it might just need to be presented or executed differently.
  4. Assess the internal changes (resource levels, processes, systems…) required to scale up successful strategies. This is an essential step to be able to deliver in a sustainable manner; this can also be a catalyst for change, as it will require long-term planning and full-organisation thinking.  
  5. Turn your mission and actions towards your audience: they should always be firmly in the picture, not an afterthought or – worse – a nuisance. This is where change can become motivational and lead to a higher level of emotional truth, a renewed sense of purpose, a more challenging – and more rewarding – way of working. 

We are the Music

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The fastest-growing section on my bookshelf seems to be the autoethnography corner – researchers turning the lens on themselves and their own tribe. The latest addition to my collection, joining the ranks of Richard Hoggart, Lisa McKenzie, Kate Fox and al., is Marvin HarrisWhy Nothing Works, an “anthropology of daily life” published in 1981, digging deep to retrace the roots of everyday evil in contemporary America.

“This book is about cults, crime, shoddy goods, and the shrinking dollar. It’s about porno parlors, and sex shops, and men kissing on the streets. It’s about daughters shacking up, women on the rampage, marriages postponed, divorces on the rise, and no one having kids. It’s about old ladies getting mugged and raped, people shoved in front of trains, and shoot-outs as gas pumps. And letters that take weeks to get delivered, waiters who throw the food at you, rude sales help, and computers that bill you for things you never bought. It’s about broken benches, waterless fountains, cracked windows, dirty toilets, crater-filled roads, graffiti-covered buildings, slashed paintings, toppled statues, stolen books.”

Marvin Harris, ‘Introduction’, Why Nothing Works

How and why does all of this happen? The underlying causes of all these disparate problems are, according to Harris, centralisation, bureaucracy and oligopoly, the dark side of unfettered capitalism that ends up killing – in the name of maximising shareholder profit – the sense of initiative, quality control and efficiency that led to prosperity and progress in the first place.  

If the cause is centralisation, it would only be logical that the solution should be decentralisation (and Harris’ is always reassuringly logical, even when he turns upside down entrenched myths and rock-solid narratives). Already in 1981, Harris was calling for legislation towards greater local autonomy, “legal barriers against takeovers of new energy technologies (…) by multinational conglomerates” and support for “small business and community-based cooperatives” – an unlikely but necessary scenario that finds many advocates today, such as the partisans of the Transition model.  

The human-scale, everyday damage of capitalism is illustrated in the first two chapters – ‘Why Nothing Works’ and ‘Why the Help Won’t Help You’. Harris introduces up a simple concept that peaked my attention: if your new toaster burns everything it touches, or the shop sales assistant has no idea (and no interest in finding out) when they will restock your size, that’s because the social link between maker and user is broken. In a small-scale economy, the transaction between the person making and the person using the object is much more than monetary: there has to be trust, care and accountability. Objects made for oneself, a family member or next-door neighbour are perfect and durable because there’s a direct relation between the maker and the user: Harris give the examples of a sea canoe and a parka, which failure would be life-threatening on a freezing hunting trek. Inversely, in modern-day manufacturing and service industries, ever-growing layers of bureaucracy and hierarchy fragment the making process and separate each employee both from the product or service and the end-user.

This made me think of “music-making” – a term I’ve come to like for giving music – technically, a series of invisible waves – a physicality that makes it easier to relate to the people at each step of the process, the makers (musicians), users (listeners), but also the enablers, such as producers, promoters… It clearly places music within the frame of a communication process.

Music as a social link between people is an idea that I find helpful to think about activities that fall within the range of education, outreach, engagement and participation: of course, music can be ‘beneficial’ in itself, and the well-being and cognitive benefits associated with playing and listening to music are well documented, but the power of live music is also that it’s created by someone to share with others. Organisations like Live Music Now, as well as many orchestras, take music to people who can’t otherwise access it – inside hospitals, special schools and community centres – and as LMN founder Yehudi Menuhin says in this short extract, it’s about communicating and touching people one by one.

When music is played together, from a duo to an orchestra, a special chemistry happens between players, which, when it ‘works’, becomes a thrilling, enthralling bond between performers and audience. The context is hugely important in creating this connection, as the audience experience is shaped and influenced by a multitude of details that are mostly completely out of the control of the musicians: venue layout, sound quality, interaction with staff or volunteers…

And when thinking about the user-maker relationship, I wonder if we could think of the audience themselves as both creators and receivers of their own experience – that of being part of a crowd, a community of feeling. Then it’s perhaps the social link between listeners that is broken when rules and etiquette are erected to contain emotion and exclude rather than include participants. I’m thinking here of the concert hall experience often associate with classical music, and the stilted attitude to fellow audience members that can come with it – see the baffling episode related by Gillian Moore, Head of Music at Southbank Centre, who was chided by an audience member for moving her head in appreciation of the music.

There has been much done recently to allow the audience to develop and express a collective emotion while listening to classical music, by playing in more informal venues, from pubs to clubs and car parks, playing with presentation format, like the annual festival La Folle Journée in Nantes, or even making it a multi-sensory experience, like in the experiment below by BitterSuite.  

As I revisit these initiatives to reinvent the classical music experience and constantly discover new ones, it strikes me that I just can’t find the same type of information for jazz, another once-popular genre now soul-searching for new audiences. There are plenty of innovative jazz promoters out there inventing news ways to be with live music, but they just don’t get shared the same way that classical music case studies do – for example, I don’t know any jazz equivalent to this photo-heavy collection of 40 innovative live classical music case studies from around the world compiled by audience specialist Johan Idema. One for the to-do list? In the meantime, I take this call for responsible listeners that concludes Aaron Copland’s “preparation for listening” manual as a reminder that not all responsibility lies with the promoter:

“Take seriously your responsibility as listener. (…) Since it is our combined reaction as listeners that most profoundly influences both the art of composition and interpretation, it may be truthful to say that the future of music is in our hands.

Music can only really be alive when there are listeners who are really alive. To listen intently, to listen consciously, to listen with one’s whole intelligence is the least we can do in the furtherance of an art that is one of the glory of mankind.”

Aaron Copland, What to Listen for in Music (1939)

In Joy or Sadness…

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In joy or sadness flowers are our constant friends. We eat, drink, sing, dance, and flirt with them. We wed and christen with flowers. We dare not die without them. We have worshipped with the lily, we have meditated with the lotus, we have charged in battle array with the rose and the chrysanthemum. We have even attempted to speak in the language of flowers. How could we live without them?
― Kakuzo Okakura, The Book Of Tea

I’m pretty sure I once signed up for a WordPress reminder in an attempt to keep up with a self-imposed weekly blogging schedule, but it seems to have turned itself off – probably because I failed too many times to publish a new article on time. I have a few projects on the go right now that keep me busy enough, but as I still like to share what I’m doing (and find it really useful to dig deeper and structure my reflection) here’s a quick post based on research I’ve undertaken for an upcoming event.

(I’ve also just started using Tumblr for very quick posts as an experiment  – so far so fun).

 

The spirit of nature: Kathy Klein’s flower mandalas

freesia & euphorbia

Freesia & euphorbia

iris and mimosa at wild rose ranch

Iris and mimosa

protea, coastal geranium, chinese latern flower on chinese singing water bowl

Protea, coastal geranium, chinese latern flower on chinese singing water bowl

danmala553alstroemeria-hydrangea-gerbera-daisy

Alstroemeria, hydrangea, gerbera, daisy

succulents from the cliffside, at 11th street beach during rain at low tide

Succulents from the cliffside, at 11th street beach during rain at low tide

A mandala is a spiritual symbol – usually a geometric pattern in the shape of a circle – that represent a microcosmos of the universe. For a more accurate definition, Wikipedia is probably a good start – and for a modern artistic interpretation, American artist Kathy Klein’s dānmālā practice is a great example.

The name dānmālā comes from the vedic sanskrit words dān: the giver and mālā: garland of flowers. Her website has a huge image gallery of pieces using flowers and other organic materials, but also mandalas created with stones, shells and sweets.

She’s also active on social media, with new designs posted regularly on her Facebook feed and – especially relevant to my purposes – an ever-growing album of in situ creations.

 

Painting with flowers: Red Hong Yi’s petal stories

rooster made from gerberas and leaves

Rooster made from gerberas and leaves

peacock made from butterfly pea flowers, bottlebrush leaves, coconut leaf sticks, alamandas : trumpet flowers

Peacock made from butterfly pea flowers, bottlebrush leaves, coconut leaf sticks, alamandas : trumpet flowers

dodo made from white, pink and orange chrysanthemum flowers

Dodo made from white, pink and orange chrysanthemum flowers

hornbill made of chrysanthemums, germeras and purple shamrocks

Hornbill made of chrysanthemums, germeras and purple shamrocks

northern cardinal made of red gerberas and deep purple chrysanthemums with dill

Northern cardinal made of red gerberas and deep purple chrysanthemums with dill

‘Red’ Hong Yi – the artist who ‘loves to paint, but not with a paintbrush’ – is a Malaysian artist-architect, who started working with everyday materials when she moved to Shanghai, a city her family had left in the early days of the Cultural Revolution.

For the purpose of my research, I’m especially interested in her series of birds made of flowers (above), using a wide palette of petals, leaves and branches. She also has an extensive portfolio of portraits made from mundane objects – chopsticks, melted candles, shuttlecocks, sunflower seeds… – and has created exquisite daily scenes on a white plate only using food ingredients for a 31-day creativity challenge. She’s very active on Instagram, where she publishes her experiments with new themes or materials.

 

Sensory overload: Rebecca Louise Law’s floating fields

‘The Flower Garden Display’d 2014′

‘The Flower Garden Display’d 2014′ – a floating meadow of 4,600 blooms – commissioned by London’s Garden Museum.

OdysseyMain_Crop_second stage

‘The Flower Garden Display’d’ – Second stage, Odyssey Exhibition curated by bo.lee Gallery. This installation was made using the dried flowers from the previous display entwined with 8800 meters of copper wire.

The Hated Flower, 2014 The Coningsby Gallery, London 5,000 Carnations and Chrysanthemums

The Hated Flower, 2014 The Coningsby Gallery, London (5,000 Carnations and Chrysanthemums)

Neither drawing from geometrical patterns nor from figurative representation, Rebecca Louise Law’s large-scale installations create immersive sensory experiences with hundreds of flowers – often upside-down, always strikingly delicate yet powerful.